Substance-induced psychosis Substance-induced psychosis (commonly known as Toxic psychosis) is a form of substance-related disorder where psychosis can be attributed to substance use. It is a psychosis that results from the poisonous effects of chemicals or drugs, including those produced by the body itself. Various psychoactive substances have been implicated in causing or worsening psychosis in users.
Psychosis manifests as disorientation and visual (and/or haptic) hallucinations. It is a state in which a person's mental capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others is impaired, thus interfering with the capacity to deal with life demands. While there are many types of psychosis, substance-induced psychosis can be pinpointed to specific chemicals. Go Back.
Empathogen-entactogen The terms empathogen and entactogen are used to describe a class of psychoactive drugs that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar to those of MDMA (ecstasy). Putative members of this class include 2C-B, 2C-I(at 2-14mg), MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MBDB, 6-APB and mephedrone among others. The chemical structure of many entactogens contains a substituted amphetamine core, and most belong to the phenethylamine class of psychoactive drugs, although several (AET and AMT) are tryptamines. When referring to MDMA and its counterparts, the term 'MDxx' is often used with the exception of MDPV. Entactogens are sometimes incorrectly referred to as major hallucinogens or stimulants, which is untrue although many entactogens exhibit psychedelic and/or stimulant properties as well.
These drugs appear to produce a different spectrum of psychological effects from major stimulants such as methamphetamine and amphetamine or from major psychedelic drugs such as LSD or psilocybin. As implied by the category names, users of entactogens say the drugs often produce feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others. However, there have been only very preliminary comparisons of these drugs in humans in properly-controlled laboratory studies. Go Back.
Dysphoria Dysphoria (from Greek: δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression, anxiety, or agitation. It can also mean someone that is not comfortable in their current body or gender. Common reactions to dysphoria include emotional distress or indifference. The opposite state of mind is known as euphoria. Go Back.
AB-FUBINACA AB-FUBINACA is a drug that acts as a potent agonist for the cannabinoid receptors, with Ki values of 0.9nM at CB1 and 23.2nM at CB2. It was originally developed by Pfizer in 2009 as an analgesic medication, but was never pursued for human use. Subsequently in 2012, this compound was discovered as an ingredient in synthetic cannabis blends in Japan, along with a related compound AB-PINACA which had not previously been reported. In January 2014, AB-FUBINACA was designated as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States. Go Back.
STS-135 (N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide) is a designer drug offered by online vendors as a cannabimimetic agent. The structure of STS-135 appears to utilise an understanding of structure-activity relationships within the indole class of cannabimimetics, although its design origins are unclear. STS-135 is the terminally-fluorinated analogue of SDB-001, just as AM-2201 is the terminally-fluorinated analogue of JWH-018, and XLR-11 is the terminally-fluorinated analogue of UR-144. No information regarding the in vitro or in vivo activity of STS-135 has been published, and only anecdotal reports are known of its pharmacology in humans or other animals. Go Back.
Methaemoglobinaemia reduced ability of the red blood cell to release oxygen to tissues
Signs and symptoms include shortness of breath, cyanosis, mental status changes, headache, fatigue, exercise intolerance, dizziness, seizures. Go Back.
5F-AKB-48 5F-AKB-48 is a drug that acts as a potent agonist for the cannabinoid receptors which produces subjective effects somewhat similar to that of Cannabis with a short duration and an emphasis on intense physical sensations. There is very little information regarding the pharmacology of this compound within the scientific literature. Despite this however it is available for sale as a grey area research chemical through online vendors. Go Back.
5F-PB-22 5F-PB-22 or Quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-8-carboxylate is a designer drug and a possible cannabinoid agonist. The structure of 5F-PB-22 appears to have been designed with an understanding of structure-activity relationships within the indole class of cannabinoids on the Forendex website of potential drugs of abuse. In January 2014, 5F-PB-22 was designated as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States Go Back.
ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and persist for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals inattention symptoms often result in poor school performance. Go Back.
POTS Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS, also postural tachycardia syndrome) is thought to be a condition of partial dysautonomia, to be more specific orthostatic intolerance (OI), in which a change from the supine position to an upright position causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate, called tachycardia. Several studies show a decrease in cerebral blood flow with systolic and diastolic cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity decreased 44% and 60%, respectively. People with POTS have problems maintaining homeostasis when changing position, e.g. moving from one chair to another or reaching above their heads. Many also experience symptoms when stationary or even while lying down. Symptoms present in various degrees of severity depending on the individual. POTS can be severely debilitating. Some afflicted individuals are unable to attend school or work and for especially severe cases, they are completely incapacitated. Go Back.
Narcolepsy Narcolepsy /ˈnɑrkəˌlɛpsi/, also known as hypnolepsy, is a chronic neurological disorder caused by autoimmune destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons inhibiting the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. People with narcolepsy experience frequent excessive daytime sleepiness, comparable to how non-narcoleptics feel after 24 to 48 hours of sleep deprivation, as well as disturbed nocturnal sleep which often is confused with insomnia. Narcoleptics generally experience the REM stage of sleep within 5 minutes of falling asleep, while non-narcoleptics do not experience REM in the first hour or so of a sleep cycle until after a period of slow-wave sleep unless they are significantly sleep deprived. Go Back.
2C-B 2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974. In Shulgin's book PiHKAL, the dosage range is listed as 12–24 mg. 2C-B is sold as a white powder sometimes pressed in tablets or gel caps and is referred to on the street by a number of slang names. The drug is usually taken orally, but can also be insufflated or vaporized. Go Back.
Stimulant Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to their rendering a characteristic "up" feeling, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental and/or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and without prescription both as legal substances and illicit substances of recreational use or abuse. Go Back.
Depressant A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug or endogenous compound that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain. Depressants are also occasionally referred to as "downers" as they lower the level of arousal when taken. Stimulants or "uppers" increase mental and/or physical function, they are the functional opposites of depressants. Depressants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances. When these are used, effects often include ataxia, anxiolysis, pain relief, sedation or somnolence, and cognitive/memory impairment, as well as in some instances euphoria, dissociation, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure or heart rate, respiratory depression, and anticonvulsant effects, and even complete anesthesia or death at high doses. Depressants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include facilitation of GABA, and inhibition of glutamatergic or monoaminergic activity. Go Back.
hallucinations/ hallucinogenic A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perception anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness. Hallucinations are typically caused by psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants. By contrast, Stimulants, Opioids, and other psychoactive drugs are not explicitly hallucinogens because a 'hallucination' is visual terminology. The psychoactivity of opioids is devoid of visual anomalies, though the 'numbing' can be considered dissociation from pain. Hallucinations are not an uncommon symptom of amphetamine psychosis, but as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While stimulants do not induce hallucinations without abuse, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. L. E. Hollister's criteria for establishing that a drug is hallucinogenic are as follows:
in proportion to other effects, changes in thought, perception, and mood should predominate; intellectual or memory impairment should be minimal; stupor, narcosis, or excessive stimulation should not be an integral effect; autonomic nervous system side effects should be minimal; and addictive craving should be absent. Go Back.
Serotonin syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potential symptom of any number of life-threatening drug interactions which may follow therapeutic drug use, combination, overdose of particular drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs. Serotonin syndrome is not an idiopathic drug reaction; it is a predictable consequence of excess serotonin on the CNS and/or peripheral nervous system. For this reason, some experts strongly prefer the terms serotonin toxicity or serotonin toxidrome which more accurately reflect that it is a form of poisoning. Other names include serotonin sickness, serotonin storm, serotonin poisoning, hyperserotonemia, or serotonergic syndrome.
Excessive levels of serotonin produce a spectrum of specific symptoms including cognitive, autonomic, and somatic effects. Symptoms may range from barely perceptible to fatal. Numerous drugs and drug combinations have been reported to produce serotonin syndrome, though the exact mechanism is not well understood in many instances. Go Back.
2-AI 2-Aminoindane (2-AI) is a psychoactive drug and research chemical with stimulant properties. It is a rigid analogue of amphetamine and partially substitutes for it in rat discrimination tests. Go Back.
5-IAI 5-Iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI) is a drug which acts as a releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It was developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. 5-IAI fully substitutes for MDMA in rodents and is a putative entactogen in humans. Unlike related aminoindane derivatives like MDAI and MMAI, 5-IAI causes some serotonergic neurotoxicity in rats, but is substantially less toxic than its corresponding amphetamine homologue pIA, with the damage observed barely reaching statistical significance. Go Back.
Benzocaine Benzocaine is a local anaesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops. It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anaesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined with antipyrine to form A/B otic drops to relieve ear pain and remove earwax. Go Back.
Lidocaine Lidocaine also known as Xylocaine or Lignocaine is white ctystalline powder. Its' IUPAC (Proper chemical name) is 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl) acetamide. Commonly used as a local anaesthetic in dentistry and for minor surgery. Go Back.
Inositol Inositol is a vitamin-like substance. It is found in many plants and animals. It can also be made in a laboratory. Inositol is used in very high doses (6 grams +) for diabetic nerve pain, panic disorder, high cholesterol, insomnia, cancer, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, promoting hair growth, a skin disorder called psoriasis, polycystic ovary syndrome, including failure to ovulate; high blood pressure; high triglycerides; and high levels of testosterone and treating side effects of medical treatment with lithium. Go Back.
Cutting A cutting agent is a chemical used to "cut" (dilute) illicit drugs with something less expensive than the drug itself. Go Back.
Priapism An erection that will not go away. If you have an erection that lasts more than 4 hours, get medical help right away. If it is not treated right away, priapism can permanently damage your penis. Go Back.
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) HPPD is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of sensory disturbances, most commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of hallucinogenic substances. Previous use of hallucinogens by the person is necessary, but not sufficient, for diagnosis of HPPD. For an individual to be diagnosed with HPPD, the symptoms cannot be due to another medical condition. HPPD is distinct from flashbacks by reason of its relative permanence; while flashbacks are transient, HPPD is persistent. Go Back.
Racemic In chemistry, a racemic mixture, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. The first known racemic mixture was "racemic acid", which Louis Pasteur found to be a mixture of the two enantiomeric isomers of tartaric acid. Go Back.